- Use SSH to log in to the server.
- Using the instructions from the previous article, install GlusterFS and format the
brickspartition as follows:
apt-get update apt-get install -y glusterfs-server glusterfs-client apt-get install -y xfsprogs mkfs.xfs /dev/xvde1 mkdir /srv/.bricks echo /dev/xvde1 /srv/.bricks xfs rw 0 1 >> /etc/fstab mount /srv/.bricks ufw allow in on eth2
Incorporate the new brick into the Gluster volume
- Use SSH to log in to either web01 or web02.
- The following command instructs the GlusterFS volume to trust the new server:
root@web02 :~# gluster peer probe 192.168.0.3 peer probe: success
- Add the brick into the volume:
root@web02 :~# gluster volume add-brick www replica 3 192.168.0.3:/srv/.bricks/www volume add-brick: success
The parts of the command are as follows:
gluster– The command is for GlusterFS.
volume– The command is related to a volume.
add-brick– You are adding a brick to the volume.
www– This is the name of the volume.
replica 3– After you add this brick, the volume will keep at least three copies of each file, one copy per brick, and in this case, one copy per server (because there is only one brick on each server).
192.168.0.3:/srv/.bricks/www– This is the IP address of the Gluster server, followed by the absolute path to where the brick data should be stored.
Volume storage strategies
GlusterFS offers different types of volume storage strategies:
- Distributed – One file on one brick, the next file on the next. This strategy gives you more space because your volume is the sum of all the bricks.
- Replicated – Every file is copied to every server. This is the strategy that we recommend.
- Striped – Files are cut into chunks, and one chunk is written to the first brick, one chunk is written to the second brick, and so on.
You can also combine strategies, for example replicated-distributed, as illustrated in the following example:
gluster volume create www replica 2 transport tcp 192.168.0.1:/srv/.bricks/www 192.168.0.2:/srv/.bricks/www 192.168.0.3:/srv/.bricks/www 192.168.0.4:/srv/.bricks/www
The replica number is the number of bricks that make up a replica set, that is, hold a full copy of the files. In the preceding example 192.168.0.1 + 192.168.0.2 hold a full copy of the files, as do 192.168.0.3 + 192.168.0.4. The brick order is significant; if you ordered it 1,3,2,4 then 1+3 and 2+4 would hold the full files, so that if 1+2 went down, you would loose half your files and have two copies of the other half.
Having a replicated-distributed volume gives you a little extra speed, and more space in exchange for data safety.
Striped-replicated volumes are recommended only when you have files that are bigger than a brick, or many large files that are undergoing many IO operations.
View the state of the servers
Following are some commands that you can use to find out more about what’s happening in your cluster. You will use these commands in the later articles.
If you run the following command from any server, it shows all the peer servers that it knows about:
root@web01:~# gluster peer status Number of Peers: 2 Hostname: 192.168.0.3 Uuid: ba502dc2-447f-466a-a732-df989e71b551 State: Peer in Cluster (Connected) Hostname: 192.168.0.2 Uuid: 56e02356-d2c3-4787-ae25-6b46e867751a State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)
The following command is a helpful troubleshooting command. It gives information about all the GlusterFS volumes and tasks queued and in progress.
root@web03:~# gluster volume status Status of volume: www Gluster process Port Online Pid ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Brick 192.168.0.2:/srv/.bricks/www 49152 Y 13673 Brick 192.168.0.1:/srv/.bricks/www 49152 Y 10249 Brick 192.168.0.3:/srv/.bricks/www 49153 Y 13783 NFS Server on localhost 2049 Y 13793 Self-heal Daemon on localhost N/A Y 13800 NFS Server on 192.168.0.2 2049 Y 13900 Self-heal Daemon on 192.168.0.2 N/A Y 13907 NFS Server on 192.168.0.1 2049 Y 10286 Self-heal Daemon on 192.168.0.1 N/A Y 10293 There are no active volume tasks
Remove a brick
Now, remove a brick from the volume. The following example removes brick 2:
root@web01:~# gluster volume remove-brick www replica 2 192.168.0.2:/srv/.bricks/www Removing brick(s) can result in data loss. Do you want to Continue? (y/n) y volume remove-brick commit force: success
This command tells GlusterFS that the
www volume will now keep only 2 copies of each file. It prompts you that you might lose data.
If you were on a distributed volume, you would want to run the command as follows:
root@web01:~# gluster volume remove-brick www replica 2 192.168.0.2:/srv/.bricks/www start
watch it until it finishes:
root@web01:~# watch gluster volume remove-brick www replica 2 192.168.0.2:/srv/.bricks/www status
Running the command that way gives GlusterFS time to re-distribute the files around the bricks.
Re-add a brick
Re-adding a brick is not as straight forward as it could be, so this section explains how to do it.
Try adding web02 back into the volume, as follows:
root@web01:~# gluster volume add-brick www replica 3 192.168.0.2:/srv/.bricks/www volume add-brick: failed:
It failed. Why? Look at the logs on web02:
root@web02:/srv/.bricks# tail /var/log/glusterfs/*log -f | grep E [2014-05-25 00:19:04.954410] I [input.c:36:cli_batch] 0-: Exiting with: 0 [2014-05-25 00:19:12.958620] I [input.c:36:cli_batch] 0-: Exiting with: 0 [2014-05-25 00:40:46.923747] E [glusterd-utils.c:5377:glusterd_is_path_in_use] 0-management: /srv/.bricks/www or a prefix of it is already part of a volume [2014-05-25 00:40:46.923789] E [glusterd-op-sm.c:3719:glusterd_op_ac_stage_op] 0-management: Stage failed on operation 'Volume Add brick', Status : -1
The issue is that
/srv/.bricks/www still contains the data from the time when web02 was a member of the volume.
It needs a clean place to store the data. The easiest way to clean up is to just remove it all, as follows:
root@web02:~# rm -rf /srv/.bricks/www
Be careful to perform this action on the correct host (web02, which is currently out of the volume). If you do make a mistake, the next article shows you how to recover. Alternative actions would be to move the
www directory out of the way, or to add the brick using another directory, such as
Now that you have a clean location in which to store the brick, adding the brick is easy:
root@web01:/srv# gluster volume add-brick www replica 3 192.168.0.2:/srv/.bricks/www volume add-brick: success
Next section – How to recover from a failed server in a GlusterFS array